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SMGT 2600: Global Perspectives in Sport

Resources and information relevant to the topics discussed in SMGT 2600.

Be Aware of Bias

You should be aware that some publications have a certain bias on the issues presented. The web site may be produced by a company that, of course, will be supportive of the materials they sell or the information they provide. The magazine may be a trade publication or a society publication that gives only one side of an issue. A book may be published by an organization that is trying to convince others of the merits of the organization's opinions.
While none of this is necessarily bad or wrong, you do need to be aware of what is presented. If you want a balanced paper or speech, you will need to look at all sides of an issue. However, if you are doing an argumentative speech or essay, you will want to present only your side.
The following periodicals (while they may be excellent resources for you to use) all have a particular bias.

Moderate to Liberal Jesuit Catholic

Brookings Review
Christian Century
Moderate to Liberal Protestant
Christianity Today
Conservative Protestant
Moderate Jewish Perspective

Liberal Catholic



FP (Foreign Policy)
Global focus
Foreign Affairs
Hastings Center Report
Bioethics, Balanced
National Review
New Republic
New Statesman
British Current Affairs
Investigative Reporting, Liberal
Public Interest
Public Policy
Reader's Digest
U.S. News & World Report
Moderate to Conservative, Objective
Alternative Press

Weekly Standard


World & I 
World Policy Journal
Moderate to Progressive
World Watch
Global focus
Adapted from LaGuardia, C. with Katz, B. (2006). Magazines for Libraries. Ref. Z 6941 .M23 2006

Scholarly vs. Non-scholarly Periodicals

Popular Magazines

PeopleThe primary purpose of these periodicals is to produce a profit for the publisher. Examples include Time, Newsweek, and People.

Available for public purchase at stores and newsstands

  • As a whole, are designed to persuade, to entertain, and to sell advertised products
  • The articles are short and are written to entertain the general public, not necessarily to inform
  • Articles may also consist of brief summaries of research done by others
  • Articles are seldom footnoted, and the source for the information is rarely provided
  • Articles are usually written by freelance writers or members of the magazine's staff
  • Articles often are illustrated with color graphics and photographs
  • Advertisements are aimed at the general public
General Interest Magazines

The primary purpose of these periodicals is to provide information in a general manner to a broad audience. Examples include 

Sports Illustrated, Fast Company, and Rolling Stone.  

  • Articles generally written by a member of the editorial staff or a freelance writer
  • Language of articles geared to any educated audience, no subject expertise assumed
  • No peer review process
  • Sources are sometimes cited, but more often there are no footnotes or bibliography
Trade Journals

The primary purpose of trade journals is to provide news and information to people in a particular industry or profession. Examples include Women's Wear Daily, Hotel and Motel Management, Lodging, and Travel Weekly.

  • Can be published by for-profit corporations, but are often published by a professional association
  • Editorial staff, which selects the articles, consists mainly of individuals with experience or education within the industry or profession
  • Authors are usually practitioners or educators within the industry or profession
  • Articles focus on practical topics of interest to practitioners
  • Articles rarely report original research, but excellent sources of statistical information about the industries they cover
  • Articles often are illustrated with color graphics and photographs similar in nature to the popular magazines
  • Journals often include employment announcements for job vacancies within the industry or profession
  • Articles may not be extensively documented, providing few footnotes and rarely including bibliographies
  • Advertisements are for industrial or specialized products and are aimed at people in that industry or profession
Scholarly Journals

The primary purpose of scholarly journals is to inform and to report on original research or experimentation. Examples include New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of Safety Research, Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Annals of Tourism Research.

  • Usually published by a scholarly professional association or university
  • Editors are usually scholars in the field with established reputations. Before the editors accept an article for publication, it is first reviewed by scholars or researchers in the field
  • Illustrations, if any, are usually graphs or charts, with few color graphics or photographs
  • Articles are lengthy and extensively documented, with all references provided in footnotes or end notes
  • Authors have conducted research in the field and are usually affiliated with a university or research center; authors' credentials are usually listed at the beginning or at the end of the articles
  • Authors write in the language of their discipline
  • Readers, usually other scholars or college students, are assumed to have some knowledge of the field and to be familiar with the jargon
  • Articles are usually preceded by abstracts (summaries)
  • Scholarly journals contain few, if any, advertisements

SIFT method for evaluating resources

SIFT is a series of actions you can take to determine the validity and reliability of claims and sources on the web.

The SIFT method, or strategy, is quick and simple and can be applied to various kinds of online content: news articles, scholarly articles, social media posts, videos, images, etc.

Each letter in SIFT corresponds to one of the Four Moves:

A graphic explaining the SIFT Method: The S stands for STOP, the I stands for Investigate the Source, the F stands for find other coverage and the T stands for trace claim quotes and media back to their original context.


Investigate the source

Find better coverage

Trace claims, quotes and media to the original context


Find more details on the Four Moves from Mike Caulfield's SIFT (Four Moves), which is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Searching the Internet

Scholarly Research

Great information from Memoirs of a Modern Librarian.

Evaluating Web Pages