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Early Childhood Education

This guide will provide resources and assistance to students majoring in Early Childhood Education within the Department of Education.

APA Print Sources

APA: Print Sources

Presented below are examples of citations as they may appear in a works-cited page. The examples are meant to be illustrative and do not encompass every possible situation. If you have questions about citing particular types of sources or dealing with particular situations, you should consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association or contact a reference librarian.

Note that titles of periodicals (newspapers, journals, magazines) are capitalized as they normally are; book titles and article titles have only the first word of the title (and of any subtitles), as well as proper nouns, capitalized. Use single spaces between all words/items within each citation.


APA Book

Edited Book

Chapter from an Edited Book

APA Print Chapter from an Edited Book

Translation (Book)

APA Print Translation (Book)

Note: In-text citation would appear as: (Freud, 1920/1950)

Article from a Scholarly Journal

APA Print Article from a Scholarly Journal

Note: Volume number is italicized. Include issue number in parentheses immediately after volume number (no space between volume number and open parens) only if issues are not continuously paginated.

Article from a Newspaper

APA Print Article from a Newspaper

Newspaper Article with No Author Given

APA Print Newspaper Article with No Author Given

Article from a Magazine

APA Print Article from a Magazine

Proceedings of Meetings and Symposia Published Regularly Online

APA Print Proceedings of Meetings...

Images From A Book

APA Print Images from a Book

APA: Online Sources

APA: Online Sources

Note: Changes in the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association are highlighted below

According to the sixth edition of the APA manual, when available, you should include the DOI (digital object identifier) for print and electronic sources in the reference entry. The DOI number is placed at the end of the entry without ending punctuation:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number. doi:0000000/000000000000

When a DOI is not available, and a URL is included, do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time (e.g., wikis). When citing an entire website (when you are not quoting from, but rather making reference to an entire website), it is sufficient to give the address of the site in just the text (no entry in the reference list is necessary). In general, it is not necessary to include database (ERIC, JSTOR, OVID) information.

To See visual examples of these citations please go here:

Purdue Owl