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APA Style -6th edition

This guide provides resources for learning how to cite your sources using APA Style guidelines.

Journal Article with One Author

If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference.  You will not have to include the URL of the journal's home page or of the database from which you retrieved the article if a DOI is available

If you viewed a journal article in an online database and it does not have a DOI, you will need to do a quick search outside of the database to locate the URL for the journal's home page.  This information must be included in the reference.  If the journal is no longer being published and it does not have a home page, then include the URL for the home page of the database from which you retrieved the article.

If you viewed a journal article in its print format, be sure to check if it has a DOI listed.  If it does not, your reference to the article would end after you provide the page range of the article.

General Format

  • In-text citation, paraphrase: (Surname, year)
  • In-text citation, quotation: (Surname, year, page number)
  • Reference list citation: Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue), page range. Retrieved from name of academic database. 


  • In-text citation, paraphrase: (Ross-Gordon, 2011)
  • In-text citation, quotation: (Ross-Gordon, 2011, p. 28)

Reference list citation:

Ross-Gordon, J. M. (2011). Research on adult learners: Supporting the needs of a

student population that is no longer nontraditional. Peer Review, 13(1), 26-29. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.

Author's Name Introduced in Main Flow of Sentence

You can also name the author in your sentence. If you do this, there is no need to repeat it in the in-text citation. Be sure to provide the year (in parentheses) immedately following the author's name. If you are quoting the author instead of paraphrasing, be sure to also include the specific page number after the quotation. 


Ross-Gordon (2011) found that adults who graduate from college, even when their educational goals are delayed, tend to be more likely to experience improvements in their economic situation.


According to Ross-Gordon (2011), colleges have varying degrees of experience developing "programs and services that are responsive to adults' life and learning experiences" (p. 29).

Evaluation Criteria

Does the information source you are evaluating pass the CRAAP Test?


  • When was the information published or posted?
  • Is there a date given for when the site was last updated?
  • Do the links still work?


  • Is the information meeting the needs of your research?
  • Who is the intended audience? 
  • Is the information covered at the appropriate level or do you need to consult additional sources?


  • Who is the author?
  • What are the author's or organization's credentials?
  • Is the author qualified to write on this topic?
  • Is there any way to contact the author directly?


  • Where does the information come from and is it supported by evidence?
  • Can the information be verified in other sources?
  • Does the author use unbiased language that is free of emotion?
  • Is the information trying to persuade the opinion of the audience?
  • Are there any spelling or other typographical errors on the page?


  • Is the purpose of the site clear?
  • Is it designed to sell you something? Inform? Persuade?
  • Are there any political, institutional, cultural, or personal biases present?

The CRAAP acronym and descriptions are from the Meriam Library at California State University Chico.