Sometimes an author writes about research that someone else has done, but you are unable to track down the original research report.
In this case, because you did not read the original report, you will include only the source you did consult in your References.
The words “as cited in” in the parenthetical reference indicate you have not read the original research.
- In-text citation, paraphrase: (Author's surname, Year qtd. as cited in Author Surname [of the source you read], Year)
- In-text citation, quotation: (Author's surname, Year qtd. as cited in Author Surname [of the source you read], Year, page number)
- Reference list citation: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial [of the source you read]. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.
NOTE: If you were using an indirect source from an article, refer to the articles section of this guide.
- In-text citation, paraphrase: Fong’s 1987 study (as cited in Bertram, 1996) found that older students’ memory can be as good as that of young people, but this depends on how memory is tested.
- Reference list citation: Do not include Fong (1987) in your References; do include Bertram (1996).